Inicio Ejercicio Por qué el HIIT entrena más fibras musculares

Por qué el HIIT entrena más fibras musculares

La verdadera razón por la que entrenar Alta Intensidad te hace más musculoso

Escuchamos con frecuencia sobre los múltiples beneficios de los formatos HIIT (alta intensidad) y que ayudan a ganar músculo magro (sic) y perder grasa. Esencialmente se debe a los períodos muy cortos de esfuerzo y descanso; y sobre todo a las fibras musculares que se activan.

Para darte contexto va este “review”: Existen 2 tipos básicos de fibras musculares, las rojas (lentas) con características más aeróbicas; y las blancas o rápidas, que son más orientadas a estimularse con esfuerzos anaeróbicos (potencia, fuerza máxima, hipertrofia).

La mayoría de los entrenamientos de alta intensidad HIIT, tienen ejercicios de potencia y fuerza en sus formatos, por lo que son las fibras rápidas -más rápidas- las que más se activan, y que tienen más potencial de crecimiento y adaptación.

Durante los entrenamientos se da un reclutamiento de fibras musculares, como cargas de aumento progresivo:

  • Las fibras lentas (I, rojas) no se pueden convertir en rápidas, pero sí hacerse más rápidas (en su lentitud). Piensa en la tortuga más veloz.
  • Las fibras blancas IIA son las rápidas más lentas; digamos un chita que está cansado y que siendo muy rápido no alcanza el 100%.
  • Las IIB rápidas, son las más rápidas que se estimulan con ejercicios muy intensos y rápidos HIIT, ejercicios de potencia. ¡Una gacela!

HIIT

La carga define el tipo de fibras que recluto. Por ejemplo:

  • Trabajos de fuerza resistencia (tono muscular, series de más de 15 reps, o cardio a intensidad moderada) reclutan más fibras lentas;
  • Entrenamientos de hipertrofia (series entre 8-10 reps) más fibras blancas – rápidas.
  • Y los esfuerzos de potencia, alta intensidad HIIT (esfuerzos rápidos por períodos de menos de 30” de esfuerzo y menos de 90” de descanso) reclutan más fibras IIB rápidas muy rápidas que son las que logran mejor tono muscular.

De las principales variables en la carga son:

  • Aceleración
  • Volumen en newtons de la carga.
  • La cantidad de aceleración que tengo para esa masa, depende de la masa.

Debe sumar la suficiente cantidad de fibras musculares que me permitan hacer los movimientos. Por ejemplo: entre más pesada sea la resistencia externa (pesa, kettlebell, barra) tu cuerpo necesitará más fibras musculares para moverla; y entre más rápido sea el movimiento, aún más.

Es por eso que hay que entrenar progresivamente y con método, los 3 tipos de fibras musculares; ya que las fibras más rápidas inhiben a las más lentas. ¡Siempre se empuja al ritmo de la más lenta! Por eso hay que trabajar tanto fuerza aeróbica-resistencia como fuerza máxima.

De acuerdo con el deporte o ejercicio que practiques, se da un reclutamiento selectivo de las fibras, por ejemplo:

  • Un pesista usa el 95% de sus músculos
  • Un sedentario 20%

HIIT2Al principio, cuando empieza a hacer ejercicio, el cerebro le dice al sedentario que reclute ¡todas las fibras que pueda! Por eso con el entrenamiento correcto hay más cantidad de resultados en el primer trimestre.

Durante un gesto, a medida que aumentas las repeticiones, reclutas más tipos de fibras distintas para mantener el gesto. Cada vez lo hago más lento, porque voy reclutando fibras más lentas, de ahí que estilos de entrenamiento como EMOM o Tabata agotan tanto al músculo: porque se da una mayor reclutamiento de todo tipo de fibras musculares. Dando como resultado un mejor trabajo y resultado estético: el famoso músculo magro.

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