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Dietas Veganas o Vegetarianas ¿Saludables o no..?

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Hay muchos mitos en torno a las dietas vegetarianas o veganas y su relación con el ejercicio, los más comunes son:

  • Ideal para adelgazar porque no comes grasas animales.
  • Engordas porque consumes demasiadas harinas y para que haya un buen balance y lograr proteínas de alto valor biológico hay que combinar cereales y leguminosas, ergo: ¡Muchas calorías extras para lograrlo!
  • El bajo consumo de proteínas de origen animal causa desnutrición, anemia, pérdida de masa muscular y de densidad ósea.
  • Si eres vegetariano, no puedes hacer deporte: carreras, triatlones y no ganarás masa muscular.

Estos puntos, tienen un fundamento científico real, y podrían ser ciertos, si no tomas las decisiones adecuadas ¡Incluso si llevas una dieta omnívora! Por eso te damos la información básica que debes tener para tomar acciones.

La dieta vegetariana -adecuadamente planificada- aporta los nutrimentos esenciales. Incluso hay que poner especial atención en el alto aporte de carbohidratos, fibra soluble y grasas, que pueden tener; ya que podría causar incremento en el peso graso.

¡Ojo! Si la dieta no está balanceada adecuadamente, puede haber deficiencia de calcio, por lo que debes suplementarte con éste y vitamina D, para que se absorba: Vit D  600UI diaria y Calcio 1000mg al día.

La suplementación con vitamina B12 es fundamental ya que esta se obtiene -principalmente- de alimentos de origen animal (leche, carne y huevo). Especialmente para deportistas de resistencia, ya que su deficiencia afecta la producción de glóbulos rojos. Puedes comer alimentos fortificados y/o algún suplemento específico: 2.4 microgramos de vitamina B12 al día.

Los veganos o vegetarianos puros, podrían estar bajos en creatina (aminoácido esencial que está en las carnes rojas). Hay que suplementarse para mejorar la velocidad, fuerza y potencia: 20g de creatina por 5 días, en 4 tomas (fase de carga); y posteriormente 3 a 5 g al día por un mes, descansando 2 a 5 días cada ciclo.

Para lograr obtener todos los aminoácidos esenciales: combina leguminosas (frijoles, habas y lentejas) con oleaginosas o frutos secos (almendras, nueces, pistachos, avellanas etc.) y cereales (tortilla, avena, pastas etc.) ya que esta mezcla forma proteínas de alto valor biológico para un buen desempeño en la actividad  física y la reparación muscular. Estudios afirman quecombinar 4 fuentes de proteínas vegetales, ofrece el balance de 20 aminoácidos esencialesque provee la proteína animal.

Las principales clasificaciones de vegetarianos son:

  • Ovo-lacto Vegetariano: No come carne, aves, o peces, solamente incluye productos lácteos y huevos en la dieta junto con comidas basadas en plantas.
  • Vegetariano o Puro Vegetariano: Algunos hacen distinción entre medio vegetariano y vegetariano puro, considerando a éste último, aquel que no come carne animal, productos lácteos, ni huevos, y sigue una dieta estricta sólo basada en plantas.
  • Veganos: Comen sólo alimentos de origen vegetal, preferentemente orgánicos. Algunos incluso no usan ni consumen nada que sea o provenga de origen animal.

Para lograr objetivos específicos ya sea fitness o deportivos, la planificación del ejercicio debe ser coherente con la dieta. Es importante que el coach esté informado sobre este tipo de regímenes alimentarios para lograr el fin y pueda llevarte a tu mejor forma física, evitando desgaste excesivo o una descompensación.

Tip: Si tu coach o nutriólogo te dice que estos regímenes son malos. ¡Mejor busca a otro profesional del fitness que comparta tu ideología y deseos!

¡Conoce a las celebridades veganas más importantes!

http://thefriendlyfig.com/2014/10/02/celebrities-vegan/
http://thefriendlyfig.com/2014/11/14/more-celebrities

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